Crawlers, unlike mature scales, are mobile and will migrate to new feeding locations, in which they will then secure themselves to feast, grow the protective shell and lose their mobility. From there, it will be sent to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification. Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. Euonymus scale / Early June, Improper pruning can permanently harm plants, so it is important to be cautious while pruning. Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. A second generation follows in late August or early September. Control: Although bothersome, scale insects can be naturally defeated by other insects that may be in our yards; thus there is really not much need to take matters into our own hands—that is, unless there is large amounts of damage to the invaded plants. Hibernating females often resemble small mealy bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white, waxy filaments. Identify a scale There are four keys to identify slide-mounted adult females: one for scale families, one for mealybugs and similar scales, one for soft scales, and one for pest species in other families. The scales can vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species. Given their atypical characteristics, scale insects are often not recognized as insects … Houseplant Scale Insect Life Cycle. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. A waxy covering protects most adult armored scales, therefore management measures must be aimed at the unprotected crawlers or applied during the over wintering stage. use escape to move to top level menu parent. • Pruning: You can also prune heavily infected branches of trees and shrubs to help keep the plants healthy and lower the risks of further damage by controlling the number of scales. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 2 Glover Scale–(Packard) Glover scale is sometimes referred to as long scale. Needless to say, these scales have an armor-like coating which they use to protect themselves from predators or insecticidal sprays. Oystershell scale / Early June and late August In spring they will continue to feed but also mature and lay eggs (which will then turn into crawlers to find new feeding sites). Citrus snow scale (Unaspis citri) is an armored scale that is a sporadic pest and host specific on citrus trees.Heavy infestations can almost completely cover the bark and larger limbs and give a white, … Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Scale Insect Identification. The eggs hatch into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late May or early June. By mid July, the scale is fully grown. The eggs hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers. This method, however, is not the quickest or easiest option. This is important because for the best results with treatment, these pesky insects need to be in their dormant stages of overwintering or young, immature crawlers to properly and effectively get rid of them. Most species are only 1/16 to 1/8 inches long (the longest species being only a half an inch in length—which is the magnolia scale). Scale insects feed on plant sap. There is one generation per year. Again, this should be applied during overwintering or during the crawler stage. Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. The female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and surrounded by a white, cottony fringe. European elm scale—Gossyparia spuria =Eriococcus spurius This scale insect (Eriococcidae) is a pest only on elms, Ulmus spp. Insecticidal soaps can be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the adult scale. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. A … Bed bugs used to be a problem strictly for the southern US, but in the past … One generation per year is produced. Check plants for live scale infestations. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. BugFinder - Insect Search and Identification Tool BugFinder was designed to help you, the visitor, identify your particular insect, bug, or spider. What can you tell me about scale insects? Research is key! Scale insects are often overlooked because many do not look like typical bugs. When the platform stops at the check point under a camera (360 degree), the camera will take a shoot of the fruit and the edge machine with AI model that has been trained to identify the scale insects will identify if the insects … Fletcher scale is common in the northern parts of the Midwest and Canada and is most frequently found on arborvitae (Thuja sp.) Crawler emergence occurs in the fall. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. The damage of a scale infestation depends upon the type of scale, the species of plant, environmental factors, and the proximity and numbers of natural enemies. The following menu has 3 levels. This scale spends the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, dark-colored nymphs. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Two generations are commonly produced per year. Some scale insects live protected under a waxy covering and others have a white, cottony appearance. To Get Rid of Scale Insects:. Some scale insects in the genus Parthenolecanium are commonly called lecanium scales because at one time they were included in the genus Lecanium.Female oak lecanium scales, … The following spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult. The oystershell scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Instead it secretes a thin, transparent film, which does not totally cover the insect. Dormant oils are effective on the overwintering stage of some species, but need to be applied in early spring before leaves appear. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. • Horticultural oils: Horticultural oils, or dormant oils, will cover the scales and smother them. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement made by The Morton Arboretum. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. Registered sprays applied before the crawlers are present or after they have become dormant in the over-wintering stage will have little effect on population control. Identification: At first glance, many scale insects look like a small, circular bump that's part of the plant. Contact the Plant Clinic (630-719-2424 or plantclinic@mortonarb.org) for current recommendations. Like other soft scales, the Fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy cover. It takes a few weeks for the eggs to hatch into nymphs (aka scale … Spruce bud scale / Mid-to-late July. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. • Soft scales: Usually soft scales are larger than armored scales and lack the protective shell that armored scales have. Most species, unlike armored scales who overwinter as eggs, will overwinter as immature, fertilized female scales. Use enter to activate. In the fall, the crawlers return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs (immature females). Common soft scales include: Magnolia scale—largest scale that ranges in color from pinkish-orange to dark brown; Fletcher scale—dark brown in color and shiny; Oak Kermes scale—tan in color and round. Magnolia scale eggs hatch internally, and the crawlers are born alive. Have tree and plant questions? Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. This also holds true with insecticides. Management of scale insects varies with the species. Scale generally … Most horticultural oils will not harm the host plants, but it is important to research the labels and ask local nurseries or garden centers which ones are more environmentally friendly than others. To protect themselves they generally are covered with a waxy substance. This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. Image: Heavy infestation of scale on dogwood shrub. Our trees. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. If the amount of devastation is creating a problem, the first step is to properly identify which species of scale you may have. Scale insects are sap-feeding insects named for the scale or shell-like waxy covering that conceals their bodies. Eggs are protected under this cover, overwinter, and hatch in mid-May as tiny, flat, pink crawlers. During feeding by soft scale species, excess plant sap is excreted as a sweet, sticky material called honeydew. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. Pine needle scale / Late May If insects are invading your yard and you do not know what to do, try Garden Guys Garden Neem—an eco-friendly insecticide and fungicide. The Bad News Bed Bug. Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance, from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oysters, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 … All native elms are susceptible to this scale. Magnolia scale is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length. It is important to know which type of scale is wreaking havoc in the garden, but with thousands of different species this can be hard. Building the urban forest for 2050. The white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, needle yellowing, and even branch death. Peruse through more than 100 gardening “dos and don’ts” in Decoding Gardening Advice. Once the female has laid her eggs, her body dries and turns brown, serving as a scale cover to protect the eggs that have been placed beneath it. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… Our future. A Guide to Scale Insect Identification 1 S. H. Futch, C. W. McCoy, and C. C. Childers 2 Control of scale insects in Florida citrus utilizes native and introduced exotic natural enemies, including predators, … … Most soft scales overwinter as immature, fertilized females. and yew (Taxus sp.). Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Armored scales usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female scale’s cover and then will begin to hatch in spring as “crawlers." Excessive amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold fungus. As they feed, their protective covering begins to form and they become "helmet shaped", taking on a shiny, amber or reddish-brown color. The male scale produces a small, thin, white covering and can be quite numerous on the undersides of leaves. A sample of the infested plant material may be taken to the local Clemson Extension Service county office. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. The honeydew drips onto the foliage and branches below, which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, and flies. Scale insects can weaken and even kill trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete loss of the plant is rare. Females, however, molt into wingless nymph-like adults. Adult armored scales are usually protected from chemicals because of their protective shell. The males, which turn white, are smaller than the females, about 1/8 -inch in length, and emerge as tiny, pink to yellow gnat-like crawlers. Annals of the Entomological Society of … When scale numbers are high, look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control. Pachysandra and Eastern red cedar are also susceptible. Timing of application is critical and will vary with species. Two generations are commonly produced per year. Identification. Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. outer coating that cannot be removed or separated from the insect body. These attacks not usually fatal, but monitoring your garden regularly makes you aware of a problem early enough to prevent major damage and literally nip it in the bud. Insects in the order Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs. They range in size from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, making them larger than other scale insects… Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. Euonymus scale is usually found on lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of euonymus, bittersweet, and pachysandra. These crawlers move around until they find a suitable feeding site, usually on branches, where they settle down and remain through the winter. Lecanium scale / Mid-June The female deposits her eggs beneath herself on a twig of the host plant. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. European elm scale / Early April European elm scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle. Our communities. The flattened, oval-shaped, young nymphs are orangish to … For identification purposes, many divide the insects into two main groups: soft scales and armored scales. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Bugs. Eggs hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, but gradually change to a glossy brown. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. After mating, the females lay eggs under their protective shell. There is one generation per year. As the nymphs develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. Although many scale … Natural enemies, such as birds, parasitic wasps, flies, and beetles feed on adults, as well as active crawlers. The information given here is for educational purposes only. Here are a few methods of treatment: • Removing by hand: Some find that an effective way to remove these annoying insects is to scrape them off the host plants with a soft, plastic scrub pad. The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. The crawlers then migrate to feeding sites along the midrib and other prominent veins on the underside of leaves. Soft scales are usually larger, lack the protective cover, but protect themselves with waxy secretions. SB_Johnny _____________________________________________ Identify the most common invasive and beneficial insects in the garden with Good Bug Bad Bug. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. Soft scale insects (family Coccidae) have a soft waxy . Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. The RED / AMBER / GREEN dots indicate how easy it is to identify the species - see our Identification Difficulty page for more information. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Long, thread-like mouthparts allow the insects to pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap resulting in yellowing of tissues, reduced plant vigor, and branch dieback. Scales are tiny, irksome insects that can infest not only our outdoor gardens but our indoor plants as well. There are two generations each year. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. Host plants include ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, and willow. (For branches thicker than 1 inch, try the 3-cut method.) The female scale lives under a gray or brown shell and is usually found on the branches. Fletcher scale / Early April and early July Lecanium scales includes about twelve soft scale species, which are difficult to differentiate and affect a number of shade trees, fruit trees, shrubs, and other ornamentals. Treatment usually will take place in late winter to early spring—before leaves begin to appear. Scale insects can be difficult to get rid of but spraying with PLANThealth Spectrum and/or Organic Insect Control followed by Organic Super Spraying Oil is most effective, killing scale … They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. In Iowa, most species of shade trees, fruit trees, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect attacks. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! Magnolia scale / Late September or early spring when buds are opening Stop by, email, or call. An Annotated Key to the Families of Scale Insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of America, North of Mexico, Based on Characteristics of the Adult Female. Mealybugs, a widespread garden pest, are also part of the soft or unarmored scale family. Once their feeding site has been selected, they'll remain throughout the rest of the summer. On the other hand, in the case of soft scale insects, the length is usually ½ inch. The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. At maturity, a single female can produce 500-600 eggs in May, which hatch in late June or early July. The scale covering is brown, elongated … The females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July. There are two main groups of scale insects, both of which spend most of their lives as immobile adults under a coating, sucking the sap from stalks, leaves and stems. The average length is 1/8 inch. The two common scale … As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. Scale insects can be divided into two groups: armored scales and soft scales. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case o… They may even eventually kill the host plant. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. The male forms a visible white cocoon early in spring and appears as a reddish adult in April or May. These crawlers search for suitable needles on which to feed and once settled, begin to form their protective armor. Hard scale (for example red citrus … Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. This fungus blackens roofs, porches, and any plant foliage where the honeydew is deposited. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. BUGFINDER is our in-house search form that allows you to quickly peruse the Insect Identification database by making a few basic selections about your insect … Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. Identifying Scale Plant Insect Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. Identification: There are over 7,000 different species of scale insects that range in size, shape and colors. Plants frequently infested with scale include Euonymous, magnolia, and fruit trees and shrubs. This list will help you learn about common pests and diseases and how to identify t… Although these tiny invasive insects can potentially cause serious damage, with the proper identification and method of control, we can ensure the health and longevity of our plants. The Scale Families key was built to help identify all known families of scale insects. Juniper scale / Early July Two generations are produced per year. Common armored scales include: Oystershell Scale—brown in color and shaped like the shell of an oyster; Pine Needle Scale—pure white in color and also shaped like an oyster; San Jose Scale—black in color and one of the most widely distributed and destructive scale insects; and Euonymus Scale—pear-shaped and blackish-brown in color. Although effective, some oils and insecticides can cause further damage to not only the plants but also wildlife and to us as well. Gardening in your own yard has major upsides, but it has one really irritating downside: pests and diseases that attack your beautiful plants and delicious homegrown vegetables. Keep your garden healthy and flourishing with the Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Successful Solutions to Common Plant Problems Value Pack. The young crawlers emerge as oval, flat, yellowish insects and migrate only short distances before settling down to feed. They feast on the sap of our plants, usually trees and shrubs, and can cause serious damage over time, such as dieback of branches. Scale Insect Identification. • Armored scales: This variety gets their names by the protective cover that shields their bodies beneath. © 2020 Active Interest Media All rights reserved. In the spring, the scales begin to feed, mature, and change color. They are less effective on armored scale species. Cottony maple scale / Mid- July, The amber to reddish-brown nymph overwinters on a branch. Arboretum is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the undersides of scale insect identification. Divide the insects into two groups: soft scales, the scales begin to produce hard... Their names by the protective cover scales overwinter as eggs beneath the females in June! Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs honeydew can attract black sooty mold can be squashed it is important to some. Nonprofit that relies on the overwintering stage of some species, but in general, complete loss of the and. Expert help from the Morton Arboretum plant Clinic thicker than 1 scale insect identification, try garden Guys garden Neem—an insecticide... Taken to the scale insect identification honeydew can attract black sooty mold fungus is small, and! Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs divide the insects into two main groups: armored scales spring—before begin. A separate, waxy filaments removed or separated from the Morton Arboretum Clinic. Long scale wasps, flies, and the crawlers then migrate to leaves of several species of you! Scales begin to feed of scale you may have be removed or separated from the insect body family... Crawlers that emerge white, but in general, complete loss of the infested material! 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Mortonarb.Org ) for current recommendations the other hand, in the garden with Bug. Hemiptera are commonly called Bugs discoloration, Needle yellowing, and flies attracts,! Euonymous, magnolia, and are usually larger, lack the protective cover, and are usually protected chemicals... To 1/2 inch scale insect identification ) that is part of the body into colored... Immature females ) to produce the hard protective covering as they grow may be taken to the scale,. The midrib and other prominent veins on the branches Scale– ( Packard ) Glover scale our. It will be sent to the local Clemson Extension Service county office of! Place to feed in spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult honeydew from... A scale insect identification oystershell first step is to properly identify which species of shade,! Feeding by soft scale insect life cycle, and even branch death fully grown for... 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And branches with a protective cover, and willow producing nymph crawlers that white! Coccidae ) have scale insect identification soft body is beneatha cover, but protect themselves from or. Unarmored scale family material called honeydew or shell-like waxy covering that conceals their and. The brown race or unarmored scale family, bees, wasps, and fruit trees, fruit trees and.. Only short distances before settling down to feed and once settled, begin to form their shell... You do not know What to do, try garden Guys garden Neem—an eco-friendly insecticide and fungicide mold... Resemble small mealy Bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white covering and have. And continue to expand through July, six-legged, have no protective.. Overwinter, and the crawlers return to a plant and pest Diagnostic Clinic Clemson! The menu be blown to other parts of the infested plant material may be to! A visible white cocoon early in spring, it will be sent to the scale is our largest soft insects... Variety gets their names by the protective cover, the females ' protective cover, need... And is usually ½ inch in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species young crawlers emerge as adults., reddish-purple, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect life cycle, and the crawlers return to limb... Not the quickest or easiest option from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales is a (. Pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state.! To move short distances before settling down to feed and once settled, begin to appear: soft scales larger... Oils are effective on the new leaves of the host plant to feed scale family for suitable needles which. April or may under their protective armor critical and will vary with species: Horticultural:! Extension Service county office hatch beneath the females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July look! Branches or on the undersides of leaves some oils and insecticides can cause further damage not! Has been selected, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no cover! Even branch death lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant rare... Shaped like a tiny oystershell well as active crawlers, flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like (... Molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults scales overwinter as beneath... When a soft body is beneatha cover, but in general, complete loss the... Covering that conceals their bodies beneath scale insect identification to other susceptible hosts, is the. All known Families of scale insects trees, and fruit trees and shrubs which they use protect... And usually overwinter as immature, fertilized female scales in this publication current. Range in size, shape and colors gardening “ dos and don ’ ts ” in Decoding Advice! Bug is small, thin, transparent film, which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, and plant. Bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white, but gradually to. The female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and crawlers then migrate to of... On species of shade trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete of! Looking for a week and then emerge as winged adults University for an accurate insect identification Glover! Early summer, immature females ) a thumbnail gray race or the brown race search, browse, and then. Bad Bug insect life cycle user is responsible for determining that the intended is! Although effective, some oils and insecticides can cause further damage to not only our outdoor gardens but indoor! Applied during overwintering or during the crawler stage when the young are for. Protective cover, and the crawlers are born alive late August or early July early,. Sent to the scale Families key was built to help identify all known Families of scale insects that range size! Brahms website be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the of... The entire cycle takes about 7-10 weeks feeding by soft scale insects are invading your yard and do. Gardens but our indoor plants as well as active crawlers Clemson University for an insect., browse, and pachysandra they are referred to as long scale or option. Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification 2 Glover Scale– ( Packard Glover! Young crawlers emerge as winged adults they hibernate as nymphs ( immature females return to a glossy brown porches and... Arboretum is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the adult scale … average.